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Ian Smith HortiCulture
PLANT GROWTH AND MAJOR CAUSES OF PLANT DISEASE
SAFE USE AND APPLICATION OF PESTICIDES

Long term effects of pesticides
Getting risks in perspective
Pesticide handling code of practice
Before applying pesticides
Mixing pesticides and during application
During application
Pesticide toxicity
Pesticide entry to the body
Type of hazard
Acute poisoning, Pesticide absorption
Skin contamination, Ingestion by mouth, Inhalation of pesticides

UNDERSTANDING PLANT GROWTH

Plant growth and Photosynthesis
Mineral requirements of plants
Water, Temperature, Light, Light intensity, Utilising the available light, Light quality, Practical use of lighting for nursery crops
Plant requirements in the nursery
MAJOR CAUSES OF PLANT DISEASE AND OTHER DISORDERS

Major plant diseases and other disorders
Introduction to Plant Protection
Determining the cause of plant diseases and other disorders
Where are the symptoms on the plants and within the crop?
Where are the affected plants within the crop?
Where are the symptoms on affected plants?
How do the symptoms relate to plant functions?
How does the disease develop in the crop?
How does management influence the problems?
Identification of plant disease
Submission of plant and insect specimens for biological examination
CHEMICAL CONTROL, PESTICIDES USED IN NURSERIES AND ALTERNATIVE CONTROL METHODS

CHEMICAL CONTROL

What are pesticides? Need for pesticides
History of chemical control
Classification of pesticides
Classification according to main use
Insecticides, Fungicides, Herbicides
Classification according to formulation
Components of pesticides, Pesticide formulations
Classification according to chemical composition
Major classes of pesticides
Pesticide compatibility
Application of pesticides on subsequent days
Assessing the compatibility of pesticides
Pesticide additives, Water quality
Reading pesticide labels
Material Safety Data Sheets
ALTERNATIVE CONTROL MEASURES

Cultural/management controls
Biological control
Integrated control
INSECTS AND OTHER PESTS OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS AND CONTROL METHODS

Insects as pests
What is an insect
Other aniimals related to the insects
Economically important pests of nursery crops
Morphology of insects
Growth and development of insects and mites
Major insect and mite pests
Control of insects and mites
Biological insecticides
Some common insecticides
Snails and slugs, Nematodes, Weevil pests of nursery stock
Black vine weevil Otiorh ichus sulcatus
Twospotted mite on ornamental plants
Cyclamen and Broad mite Significance Damage symptoms
Western flower thrips and Tomato spotted wilt virus Significance Damage
FUNGI

Importance of fungi as causes of plant disease
General characteristics of fungi
Cycle of fungal disease, Spread of fungi
Controlling fungal diseases
Potting mix as a source of pathogens
Control using fungicides
VIRUS

Virus diseases, Naming, Spread, Diagnosis,Symptoms
Controlling virus diseases
Mycoplasma diseases

BACTERIA

Bacterial diseases, Plant parasitic bacteria, Primary symptoms
Controlling bacterial diseases

COMMON DISEASES

Cylindrocladium blight and wilt Significance and host plants Symptoms Disease cycle Control
Fairy ring spot on carnations Importance Symptoms Control
Pestalotiopsis leaf spot of ornamental plants Significance Symptoms Host plants Control
Tomato spotted wilt virus Importance Disease spread Damage symptoms and disease infection Control
Grey mould Botrytis sp.
Significance
Damage symptoms
Control
Phoma diseases of ornamental crops Significance Host plants Symptoms Control
Disease and weed problems in potting mixes Storage of potting mixes
MAJOR WEEDS OF NURSERIES AND CONTROL METHODS

What is a weed, Damage caused by weeds
Weed biology and characteristics
Life cycles, Spread of weeds, Weed seed survival
Weed control in nurseries
Pre planting techniques, After planting
Effective herbicide treatment
Major nursery weeds
Creeping oxalis Flick weed Liverworts and mosses
Petty, spurge Willow herb Winter grass
Control of liverworts and mosses
Weed problems in potting mixes
Some common herbicides
NON PARASITIC DISORDERS OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

Non parasitic disorders of plants
Major non parasitic disorders of plants
Salt damage
Salt damage in potted plants
Waterlogging
Adverse weather conditions
Cold conditions
Pollution

NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS, SOILS AND POTTING MIXES.

Identifying problems
Nutrient deficiency and toxicity symptoms
Use of fertilisers container plantsand in ground growing
Chemical and physical nature of potting mixes
Method for determination of wettability, nitrogen draw down index and toxicity of potting mix to plants
Nursery training programs tailored to the business site and requirements, delivered on site in a time frame compatible with work programs.
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